Abutsu, the Nun Abutsu: author of the 13th century travel diary Izayoi nikki. She was the widow of court poet Fujiwara Tameie, and the keeper of his manuscripts, and an important poet in her own right. Her recorded journey to Kamakura was to secure her son’s inheritance against the claims of Tameie’s son by another wife–nominally, a small estate from Tameie’s holdings, but symbolically, her son’s position as ‘authoritative and absolute arbiter of taste in court poetry’ (Wren 1997).

Accompanying Boat Collection: Ruisenshū .

Ake garasu, Crows at Dawn: a collection by Buson’s group, edited by Kitō, appearing in 1773.

“Aki no yo no nagamonogatari” (“A Long Tale for an Autumn Night”), a chigo monogatari from the Muromachi Era. The priest Keikai goes to the temple Ishiyama to pray to Kannon to achieve enlightenment. There, a beautiful youth appears to him among the cherry trees. Keikai falls in love with him, and finally passes a night with him, becoming despondent thereafter. The boy, Lord Umekawa, travels with his servant to visit his lover and console him. As Umekawa and his servant stop to rest under the famous Pine Tree of Shiga, they are kidnapped by bandits. Thinking that the priest has spirited the boy away, the temples of each of them fall into fierce battle, and Mii-dera is destroyed. When Lord Umekawa escapes the bandits and finds out what has happened, he drowns himself in sorrow for causing such destruction. It emerges that Umekawa was the Kannon of Ishikawa, appearing in the form that would lead Keikai and others to salvation. See Childs 1980, passim.

Album: Buson jihitsu kuchō

Ancient and Modern Poetry Card Anthology: Kokon tanzaku-shū.

Ariwara no Narihira: a ninth century poet, supposed to be the basis for the hero of the Ise Monogatari.

Bakurin: a poet of rural Ise and follower of Bashō. Chora studied with his followers (Crowley 2006). 

“Benkei on the Boat”: “Funa Benkei”

“Benkei on the Bridge”: “Hashi-Benkei”

Biographies of Extraordinary Persons of Recent Times: Kinsei kinjinden

Biographies of Japanese Recluses: Fusō in’itsu-den

Blue Cliff Records: Hekiganroku

The Book of Folded Pages: Fukuro zoshi

Book of the Zen Grove: the Zenrin kushū

Buson jihitsu kuchō, Buson’s Poetry Album in His Own Hand: at the very end of his life, Buson gathered the poems he wanted to preserve from a lifetime of work, some 1450 verses, and gathered them in this book in his own writing. There are some emendations of earlier versions of the haiku. The manuscript was not published until the 20th century.

Buzen, Mochizuki Buzen, 1721-1803, a student of Sōoku and known to Buson (Ueda 1998, 74).

Chang Tu: an obscure T’ang Era Chinese poet whose work appears in the Wakan rōeishū (the Japanese version of his name is Chōdoku).

“Cherry Blossom River”: “Sakuragawa”

Chia Ssu-tao: 1213-1275, a powerful court official under emperors Li-tsung and Tu-tsung. History credits him with policies leading to China’s final capitulation to the Mongols.

Chieh-tzu-yüan hua-chuan: Keshien gaden

Chin Nung: 1687-1763, a Ch’ing Dynasty poet and painter

Chiun, also called Chikamasa: d. 1448; Sōgi called him one of the “Seven Sages of Renga,” and included him in his anthology Chikurinshō.

Classical Literature of True Jewelries: Kobun shimpō kōshū shinshaku 

Chōmu, Goshōan Chōmu: 1732-1795, a monk of Kyōto, a member of the bunjin movement who practiced haiku as a spiritual discipline. He was allied with the rural faction of the Bashō school. He edited the Illustrated Biography of Bashō in 1792 (see Lineberger 2003, passim). Also the author of the 1771 travel diary Saifū kikō.

Chora, Miura Chora: 1729-1780. Haiku poet. “Ryōto had set up the Ise School, followed by Otsuya and others, but gradually it became worldly. Chora brought it back to the poetry and simplicity of Bashō...Later, he lived in Kyōto, and made poetical meetings with Buson, Kitō, Shōhaku and so on. Chora has the spirit of Bashō without his genius” (Blyth 1984, 1:319).

Chou Tun-i, Chou Mao-shu: 1017-1073, a neo-Confucian scholar who wrote commentary on the Book of Changes, also author of “An Explication on Love of the Lotus” in Ku wen chen pao hou chi.

Ch’u tz’u, Songs of the South, Elegies of Ch’u: A collection of poems, some written by Ch’u Yüan (see below), some associated with him. The heart of the collection is his genre-defining “Li sao”, “Encountering Trouble”, a lament at having been exiled by the emperor despite his faithful service.

Ch’u Yüan: (343–278 BCE), early Chinese poet. His lyrical complaint “Li sao”, “Encountering Trouble”, provided an example for generations who felt they had served faithfully and been misused by those in authority. Although he gave the emperor good advice, the lies of jealous courtiers got him exiled, and he finally drowned himself in the Mi-lo River.

Chuang Tzu: Chinese Taoist philospher, Sōshi in Japanese, 4th century BCE. Buson refers especially to the anecdote of Chuang Tzu dreaming he was a butterfly: he woke and wondered if he was instead a butterfly dreaming he was a man. 

The Collected Verses of Shundei: Shundei kushū

Collection of Japanese and Chinese Poems for Singing: Wakanrōeishū

A Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern: The Kokinshū

Crows at Dawn: Ake garasu

“The Death of Old Man Midnight”: “Yahan-ō shūenki”

“Dengaka,” “The Yodo River”: a long poem by Buson, included with “Kema Riverbank in the Spring Breeze” in his collection Midnight Melodies in 1777. This one is three verses long, the first two in Chinese. Like “Kema Riverbank in the Spring Breeze,” the poem is in the voice of a woman, this time a courtesan parting from a lover. It was written as a farewell piece for a friend leaving Osaka (Ueda 1998, 107-109).

Diary of the Road to Tsukushi: Tsukushi michi no ki

The Diary of the Waning Moon: Izayoi nikki

Du Fu: Tu Fu

Elegies of Ch’u: Ch’u tz’u

The Embroidered Brocade Discourse: Kinshūdan

Enki kappō: the Japanese title of a Chinese poetry encyclopedia, Yuan ji huo fa shixue quanshu (A Practical Guide for Adapting to Circumstances, also translated as Practical Knacks and Workable Methods: An Encyclopedia of Poetics), edited by Wang Shih-chen (Japanese Ō Seitei, 1526-1590). A 16th century guide to poetic images with entries of poetic quotations for each category. It was printed in Japan with Japanese reading marks to the Chinese text, and was a notable influence on Bashō (Qiu 2005, 121). Buson was familiar with it and alluded to its contents several times in his haiku.

Essays in Idleness: Tsurezure-gusa 

Five Carts of Scrap Paper: Gosha hōgu

A Florilegium: Hanatsumi

Fuboku wakashō, also Fubokushō, Selected Poems from the Land of the Rising Sun: an anthology of waka collected privately (rather than at the command of the emperor, as with the imperial anthologies) by Fujiwara Nagakiyo in the 14th century.

Fujiwara Ietaka: 1158-1237. He and the monk Jakuren were connected by marriage, and both were among the group of poets Fujiwara Sadaie assembled to aid him in the compiling of the Shinkokinshū. His poetry also appears in One Hundred Poems by One Hundred Poets.

Fujiwara Kiyosuke, 1104-1177. Lord of Nagato and son of poet Fujiwara no Akisuke, gathered poems for the anthology Zokushikashū at the behest of the Emperor Nijō (Nijō’s death before its completion meant that it did not become one of the imperial anthologies, Rexroth 1964, 121). He is the author of the Fukuro zoshi, and his waka appeared in the Shinkokinshū.

Fujiwara Sadaie: also called Fujiwara Teika. 1162 to 1241. Son of the poet Toshinari, attained the rank of imperial vice-councillor. He most famously edited the Hyakunin isshu, and his poems appear there and in the Shinkokinshū, which he also edited. He also wrote the “Shōji Hyakushu,” or “Hundred Poem Sequence of the Shōji Era.” A major force in shaping the literary tradition of Japanese waka.

Fujiwara Yoshitsune: See Yoshitsune.

Fukuro zoshi: Fujiwara Kiyosuke’s 12th century exposition on poetics The Book of Folded Pages, also translated as A Bag of Wisdom.

“The Fulling Block”: “Kinuta”

Funa Benkei,” “Benkei on the Boat,” a noh play by Kanze Kojirō Nobimitsu. Yoshitsune, fleeing from the threat of his brother the shogun, boards a boat to escape with his faithful retainer Benkei. Storms and ghosts of drowned soldiers attack them, but Benkei finally manages to calm them by praying.

Fusō in’itsu-den, or Biographies of Japanese Recluses: by Fukakusa Gensei, 1664. Portrayed such figures as Kenkō and Sōgi.

Gekkei, Matsumura Goshun: 1752-1811. A student of Buson in both painting and poetry. He was present at Buson’s death bed and took the dictation for his final poems. Later, he went on to study painting with Maruyama Ōkyo. Gekkei, Kitō, Gyōdai and Seira put out a book of haiku together, an important work in the sparse production of Buson’s school after his death (Blyth 1984, 2:8).

Genji monogatari, The Tale of Genji: a long, episodic narrative, written by the Lady Murasaki in the 12th century, chronicling the amorous adventures of Genji, the “Shining Prince,” and his descendants. Sometimes considered the first novel, and one of the greatest classics in Japanese literature. Buson alludes to the narrative directly many times in his haiku, but he is equally likely to evoke its atmosphere or historical period.

Gleam of the Snow: Sono yukikage

Gleanings from Uji: Ujishūi monogatari

“The Goblin of Mount Kuruma”: “Kurama Tengu”

Gosenshū or Gosen wakashū, Later Selected Collection of Japanese Poetry, the second imperial anthology, appearing in the mid tenth century, edited by Minamoto Toshiyori

Goshūishū or Goshui wakashū, Later Collection of Gleanings, one of the imperial anthologies of waka, published in the late eleventh century, edited by Fujiwara no Michitoshi.

Gosha hōgu: Five Carts of Scrap Paper, a substantial anthology of haiku and renga edited by Buson’s student Korekoma as a memorial for his father Shōha, and published in late 1783. Buson contributed the preface, although by this time he was too ill to polish it to his liking. His ill health also accounts for the paucity of new work by him in the anthology. It was the “the last major book of haiku to come out of Buson’s school during his lifetime” (Ueda 1998, 151-152).

The Great Mirror: Ōkagami

Haikai kosen, Haikai Selected Old Verses: collected by Miyake Shōzan in the 1763.

Haikai Selected Old Verses: Haikai kosen, see above

Hajin: Sōa.

Hakushi-chōkeishū: Haku is Haku Rakuten, the Japanese name for the poet Po Chü-i. This anthology of his work became available in Japan in the early 17th century. Hirō Saga lists it in Buson’s library.

Hanatsumi, A Florilegium: in 1690, Kikaku wrote this sequence of one haiku each day for one hundred days as the poetic equivalent of a Buddhist spiritual exercise, to commemorate the death of his mother. It was the initial basis for Buson’s Shin-hanatsumi.

Haru no hi, Spring Days: An anthology of haiku and renga, edited by Kakei in 1686, in which several of Bashō’s poems appeared.

Harusame monogatari, Tales of Spring Rain: A collection of short stories by Ueda Akinari, leaving the supernatural territory of his earlier Ugetsu monogatari, written in the late 1790’s and early 1800’s. The full collection was not published, however, until 1951.

“Hashi-Benkei,” “Benkei on the Bridge”: a noh drama, probably early 15th century, by Hiyoshi Sa’ami Yasukiyo. Benkei fights a young boy (the hero Yoshitsune) and loses, then pledges his services, the beginning of a loyal companionship that will last the rest of their lives.

Hattori Nankaku: 1683-1759, lived in Edo where he wrote kanshi, painted in the Chinese mode, and studied and taught Confucianism and Chinese literature. Buson may have studied with him in his youth; Shōha certainly did.

Heiji monogatari, Tale of Heiji: an epic, written in the early thirteenth century, about the late twelfth century Heiji Rebellion.

Heike monogatari, Tale of the Heiki: another war epic, also from the thirteenth century, to which Buson alluded dozens of times in his poetry. It describes the decline of the fortunes of the clan of the Heike or Taira as they lost power to the Genji or Minamoto clan.

Hekiganroku or Hekiganshū, Japanese title of the Chinese text Pi-yen lu or Blue Cliff Records: A collection of Zen anecdotes published in 1125 and exported to Japan in 1227.

Henjō: 816-890, Yoshimine no Munesada, an officer in court and then a priest, ascending to Chief Priest of the temple Gagyōji, which he founded. One of the six poetic geniuses. His waka appear in the Kokinshū.

Hermit Tales
: Hosshinshū 

The Ten Foot Square Hut, written in 1212 by Kamo no Cho-mei. A diary account of various disasters that befell Kyoto and Kamo no Cho-mei’s eventual realization of the impermanence of things, and his retreat to a tiny hut in the hills outside the city.


Hokke mongu, in Chinese Fa-hua wen-chu, Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra: a commentary on the sutra by sixth century Chinese Buddhist scholar T’ien-t’ai (538-597 or so), given as a lecture and written down by his follower Chang-an.

Hosshinshū: Kamo no Chomei’s early thirteenth century work, Hermit Tales. A collection of anecdotes about men who forswore the world in pursuit of enlightenment.

Hyaku monogatari, One Hundred Stories: A collection of ghost stories, gathered in the early Edo period, one of several such compilations from that time (JAANUS: "Hyakunin monogatari).

Hyakunin isshu or Ogura hyakunin isshu, One Hundred Poems from One Hundred Poets: An anthology of waka compiled by Fujiwara Sadaie in the early thirteenth century. The collection occupies a position of particular importance in the culture. As a New Year’s tradition, the Japanese play a card game matching up the first halves of the poems with the second, so many know the poems by heart.

Ignorance and Inquiry: the Meng ch’iu

Ike no Taiga:
1723–1776, a major nanga painter who collaborated with Buson on the series Jū-ben jū-gi zu.

Ise Monogatari, The Tales of Ise: an anthology of poems, each with a prose introduction about how it came to be written, said to be written and compiled by Ariwara no Narihira in the ninth century and later expanded by an anonymous editor (Keene 1955, 65).

Izayoi nikki, The Diary of the Waning Moon, by the Nun Abutsu.

Jakuren: A Buddhist monk and poet of the late twelfth century, a member of the Fujiwara family. His poetry appears in the Hyakunin isshu, and he helped to compile (and contributed work to) the Shinkokinshū. 

Japanese-Chinese Illustrated Collection of the Three Components of the Universe: Wakan sansai zue

The Empress Jitō: 645-702, ruler of Japan from 686 to 697. Poems attributed to her appear in the Manyōshū and Hyakunin isshu.  

Jūben jūgi zu, Ten Pleasures and Ten Conveniences of Rural Living: an album of paintings based on the poems of Chinese poet Li Yu, which Buson made in collaboration with his fellow nanga painter Ike no Taiga. Buson painted the conveniences; Taiga painted the pleasures; the series was completed in 1771 (Ueda 1998, 69).

Kachō hen, Flowers and Birds: A collection of haiku, renga, and haibun by Buson and his students, collected by Buson and written out in his own hand; it was the last anthology that he edited. The tone of some the work was light and even frivolous, very different from Buson’s usual style. It came out in 1782.

Kakinomoto no Hitomaro: “flourished during the reign of the Emperor Mommu, 697-707 A. D. Nothing else is know of him except what can be gathered from his poems. He was possibly a personal attendant of the Emperor. Presumably he spent his last years in Iwami (where he may have been born) and died there. He is generally considered the leading Japanese poet, and is the only Japanese who ever wrote really great “long poems,” naga uta, which are not long poems but elegies of moderate length. He is a kasei, a deified poet”(Rexroth 1964, 119). His waka appear in the Hyakunin isshu  and the Shinkokinshū.  

Kamo no Chōmei: 1155-1216, poet, essayist, and recluse. After being disappointed in his early hopes for a high position, and witnessing the great natural and political upheavals of his day, he lived in seclusion outside the capital, the basis for his essay “Hōjōki”

Kan’ami Kiyotsugu: 1333-1384, noh actor and author, father of Zeami (who revised what plays of his we have), wrote Sotoba komachi.

Kanze Kojirō Nobumitsu: 1435-1516, wrote noh plays characterized by dramatic story lines and spectacular presentation, as opposed to the more austere yūgen style of Zeami. Wrote “Chōryō,” “Rashōmon,” “Yoshino Tennin,”“Yugyō Yanagi,” “Ataka,” “Momijigari” (“The Maple Viewing”), Funa Benkei” (“Benkei and the Boat”) etc.

Karai Hachiemon, pen name Senryū: the more comic form of haiku is named after this poet, 1718-1790, a contemporary of Buson’s and perhaps the Mr. Karai mentioned in several of Buson’s haiku.

“Kayoi Komachi,” “Komachi and the Hundred Nights.” Noh drama by Kan’ami, in which the ghosts of Ono no Komachi and her suitor General Fukakusa, at the behest of a priest, reenact the courtship of a hundred nightly visits that culminated in Fukakusa’s death. In the end, they find salvation and are released from their suffering.

“Kema Bank in the Spring Breeze”: “Shumpū batei no kyoku” 

Kenkō: the Buddhist name of the priestly author of Tsurezuregusa. He lived from 1283 to 1352 (approximately); he had a position in court, and (for a priest) a quite worldly disposition.

Keshien gaden or in Chinese Chieh-tzu-yüan hua-chuan, Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting: a Chinese treatise on painting popular with the Japanese bunjin movement, compiled by the painter Wang Ah-chieh and his brothers, and published by Li Yu between 1679 and 1701, and reissued in 1748. Buson was familiar with it. Rosenfield argues convincingly in his Mynah Birds and Flying Rocks that the elements of landscape that the manual isolated for study, such as rocks, inspired Buson to experiment with negative space in his own compositions.

Kikaku, Takarai Kikaku, also called Shinshi: 1661-1707. One of Bashō’s closest disciples, although very different from him in temperament. Blyth characterizes his style as “truthful frivolity and witty sincerity” (Blyth 1992, 1:130). He in turn taught Sōa, who was Buson’s first teacher.

Ki no Tsurayuki: (868-945), an important Heian era poet, the main editor of the Kokinshū (he wrote the preface, itself considered an important milestone in Japanese literature), and author of The Tosa Diaries. He was also famous for his calligraphy.

Kinsei kinjinden, Biographies of Extraordinary Persons of Recent Times: Ban Kōkei’s 1790 compendium of models for good Taoist behavior.

“Kinuta,” “The Fulling Block”: noh drama by Zeami, recounting the suffering of a wife whose longing for her absent husband leads to her death and suffering in hell. Alive, she beats his robe on the fulling block; in hell, she continues to beat it without being able to make a noise. In the end, she hears the words of a sutra through the beating, and is saved.

Kinshūdan, The Embroidered Brocade Discourse: an anthology of Chinese poetry compiled by the priest Moku’un, first printed in Japan in 1597.

Kitō: 1741-1789. His father Kikei studied, along with Buson, under Sōa. When Kikei died, Buson consdered Kitō to be the first in line to inherit his position in the haiku world, and only took on the position himself with the understanding that Kitō would study with him and succeed him. This was not as selfless an arrangement as it might sound, as Kitō’s extensive secretarial and editing duties freed up Buson’s time for his own creative work. Kitō unfortunately did not long survive Buson, and since Buson had never cultivated an extensive body of students, Kitō’s early death did much to insure that Buson’s direct legacy would be a limited one.

Kiyowara Fukayabu: active in early 10th century, held office as Secretary of the Bureau of Artisans and Secretary of the Palace Storehouse Bureau, had many waka in Kokinshū.

Knapsack Notebook: Oi no kobumi

Kobun shimpō kōshū, in Chinese Ku wen chen pao hou chi (which Hirō Saga translates as Classical Literature of True Jewelries, and Keene New Treasury of Old Writings). Collection of Chinese poems and philosophical writings first published 1609, popular in Buson’s day, and one of his favorite works. We know he had volumes from the anthology in his library.

Kokinshū, Kokinwakashū, A Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern: Of the poetry collections compiled at the behest of the emperor, this was the first. Finished in 905, with an introduction by Ki no Tsurayuki, it contained 1,111 entries.

Kokon tanzaku-shū, Ancient and Modern Poetry Card Anthology: Buson’s friend Mōotsu edited this gathering of haiku, printed in each poet’s own hand, in 1751, as part of the Bashō revival. He asked Buson to write the introduction, which included the following invective:


Nowadays those who are prominent in haikai have different approaches to the various styles, castigating this one and scorning that one, and they thrust out their elbows and puff out their cheeks, proclaiming themselves haikai masters...They will flatter the rich, and cause the small-minded [i.e., tentori poets] to run wild, and compile anthologies that list numerous unpolished verses. Those who really know haikai frown and throw them away. Indeed, old priest Sainen-bô uses their verses to patch his paper coverlet at night, and old nun Myôshin-ni uses them to label her jars of miso; is this not a disgrace? (Crowley 2006, 42-3)

“Komachi at Gateway Temple”: “Sekidera Komachi”

“Komachi at the Grave-post”: “Sotoba Komachi” 

Komparu Zenchiku: 1405-1468, noh actor, playwright, and theorist, son-in-law of Zeami. Wrote the dramas“Yōkihi” (“Everlasting Sorrow,” on the Chinese beauty Yang Kuei-fei), “Bashō,” “Tamakazura” (“The Jeweled Chaplet”), “Ugetsu” (“Rain and Moon”), etc.

Konjaku monogatarishū, or Tales of Times Now Past: the most extensive medieval collection of stories, compiled in the early 12th century, containing over a thousand entries.

Ku wen chen pao hou chi: Kobun shimpō kōshū

“Kurama Tengu”: “The Goblin of Mount Tengu,” a noh play by Miyamasu. In it the young Yoshitsune is taught sword fighting by Sōjōbō, enabling him to later revenge himself against the Taira for his parents’ deaths.

Kuzu no matsubara, The Pine Forest of Kuzu: one of several treatises on haiku theory by Bashō’s pupil Kagami Shikō (1665-1731), published in 1692.

Kyorai: 1651-1704, another close disciple of Bashō, along with Kikaku and Ransetsu. Blyth characterizes him as both hard and soft; the son of a Confucian scholar and a student of archery and other martial disciplines, but with a certain “tenderness of mind” (Blyth 1984, 1:144). 

Later Collection of Gleanings Continued: Shokugoshūishū

Later Selected Collection of Japanese Poetry: Gosenshū 

Li Po or Li Bai: T’ang era poet, 701-762. He, Wang Wei and Tu Fu are typically considered the three greatest Chinese poets. David Hinton provides a summary of his biography and a description of his poetic style in the introduction to his book of translations, The Selected Poems of Li Po.

Li Yu: 937-978, Chinese ruler of the Southern Tang and lyric poet.

Li Yu: 1611-1680, also Li Li-weng, late Ming early Ching poet, playwright, and novelist, publisher of the Keshien gaden, and a link between the literati movements of China and Japan. Buson and Ike no Taiga illustrated twenty of his poems in their Jūben jūgi jō, “Ten Conveniences” and “Ten Pleasures.”

Li Zhong: minor Chinese poet of the late T’ang era whose work was anthologized in the Santaishi.

Linked Jewelry Beads of Poetry Forms: Renju shikaku

Literary Selections: the Monzen 

Liu Bang: founder of the Han Dynasty, lived in the 3rd century B.C.E.

“A Long Tale for an Autumn Night”: “Aki no yo no nagamonogatari” 

Makura no sōshi, The Pillow Book: by Sei Shōnagon, a woman of the empress’s retinue, written in the first years of the 11th century. The book consists of lists, anecdotes, and short essays on such topics as “delightful things” and “things that gain by being painted.”

Mangiku: Tsuboi Tokoko, 1657 (?)-1690, a close disciple of Bashō’s, and his companion on the journey described in Oi no kobumi. Having suffered a disgrace in his early life from involvement in some shady rice speculation, he was remarkably free from ambition and unmoved by flattery. His haiku, though excellent, are few in number due to his early death.

Man’yōshū, Ten Thousand Leaves Collection, the earliest anthology of Japanese poetry, and so therefore occupying a place of special importance in the Japanese literary canon.

Maruyama Ōkyo was a painter of Edo, a contemporary of Buson. He often painted animals; he and Buson collaborated in the sumie “A Crab and Frogs.”

Meng ch’iu, in Japanese Mōgyu waka, translated variously as Ignorance and Inquiry, Youth Inquires, Seeking of the Unenlightened, etc. The title is from the I ching. In 764 in China Li Han wrote the hundred entries, names of famous people with their memorable attributes, forming four-character epithets in rhyming couplets. Later, Hsü Tzu-kuang wrote commentary for each, so the couplets now serve as headings for narratives. In 1204, Minamoto no Mitsuyuku (1163-1244) chose 25 episodes for a Japanese edition, and it was popular for centuries as one of the ‘four primers’ for children. Burton Watson’s translation, while not complete, is the most comprehensive version in English.

Midnight Melodies: Yahanraku

Minamoto Tokiwa, d. 844. Has poetry in the Kokinshū and Hyakunin isshū. His father was Saga Tennō, and 840 he rose to the rank of Minister of the Right.

Minamoto Tōru, Kawara no Hidari no Ōimauchigimi: 822-895. His poems appear in the Kokinshū. He governed Sagami, Ōmi, Mimasaka, and Ise, and held several other important government positions.

Minamoto Toshiyori: 1057-1129, also called Minamoto Shunrai. Has poetry in the Kinyoshū anthology, which he collected. He also compiled the imperial anthology Gosenshū.

Minashiguri, Shriveled Chestnuts: an anthology of haiku by Bashō and others, published by Kikaku in 1684, and a landmark of Bashō’s early Chinese style.

“Miwa,” The Three Circles”: a noh play, attributed by tradition to Zeami, about a priest who is visited by a mysterious woman who turns out to be a goddess.

Miyake Shōzan, 1718-1801: a pawnbroker and writer of kanshi verse, a follower of the urban Bashō school, a marked influence on the literary scene of both Edo and Kyoto, and the editor of several haikai collections, including Haikai kosen. “One of Buson’s lifelong friends, ...[who] contributed to advancing Buson’s knowledge of Chinese poetry” (Yokota 2003, 16). Wrote the epilogue to Sono yukikage.

Miyamasu: a playwright of the fifteenth century, exact dates unknown, author of “Kurama tengu,” “Youchi Soga,” “Eboshi ori,” etc. Although contemporary with Zeami, he was one of the few playwrights who were not effected by Zeami’s aristocratic refinements, and his work remained grounded in the popular mode of earlier noh.

Momo sumomo, Peaches and Plums: a 1780 anthology of Buson’s circle which includes two examples of linked verse by Buson and Kitō, “Botan chirite” (“The Peony Has Scattered”) and “Fuyukodachi” (“Winter Grove”).

The Monkey’s Raincoat: Saru mino

Monzen, in Chinese Wen-hsüan, or Literary Selections, a compilation of Chinese poetry, and essays on poetics from the previous thousand years, edited by Prince Hsiao T’ung (501-531), unusually influential because it was the foundation for bureaucratic examinations in China until the end of the T’ang Dyansty in 907. An extensive body of commentaries accreted around the collection, and it was this extended body of material that was the basis for the Japanese editions of the collection in the Edo period.

Mōotsu, who also wrote under the name Yukio. He and Buson were friends from early in Buson’s life, during the period in Edo when Buson served under Sōa. Both contributed to the renga “Somaru ma no” (“Taking Forever to Bloom”) which appeared in Sōa’s 1739 haiku anthology (Ueda 1998, 9). When Buson first moved to Kyoto in 1751, visiting Mōotsu was one of the first things he did, and he contributed both a haiku and the postscript to Mōotsu’s anthology of that year, the Kokon tanzaku-shū.

Mumyōshō: the Nameless Treatise, a collection of anecdotes and observations, loosely and associatively organized, written between 1209 and 1212 by Kamo no Chomei.

Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting: Keshien gaden

Murasaki Shikibu: 974-1031. Her narrative of epic melancholy, the Tale of Genji, was a great success in its day, and is now commonly considered the world’s first novel, and one of the greatest works in world literature. She also wrote a diary and many poems. She is called Murasaki after the principal female character in her novel. She served the empress Shōshi at court, under the emperor Ichijō, where she slightly knew (and disliked) Sei Shōnagon.

“Nameless Treatise”: the “Mumyōshō”

The Narrow Road to the Interior: Oku no hosomichi

New Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern: Shinkokinshū

New Flower Picking, A New Florilegium: Shinhanatsumi

“The Night Attack of the Soga Brothers”: “Yōchi Soga” 

Nihon shoki: The Chronicles of Japan, the second oldest imperial chronicle after the Kojiki, given to the emperor in 720. The text supports the emperor’s claim to be descended from the gods.

Nōin (Lay Priest Kosobe), Tachibana no Nagayusa: 987–1058? A recluse and one of the thirty six immortal poets .

Notes of a Frog in a Well: Sei-ashō

Nozarashi kikō: The Records of a Weather-exposed Skeleton, Bashō’s first travel haibun, based on his 1684-5 trip to the north.

Oi no kobumi, Knapsack Notebook, or The Records of a Travel-worn Satchel: one of Bashō’s travel haibun, based on a trip he made in 1687, published in 1709.

Ōkagami, The Great Mirror: an early 11th century reikishi monogatari, or historical tale, covering the period from about 850-925, centering on the life of regent Fujiwara Michinaga.

Oku no hosomichi: The Narrow Road to the Interior, Bashō’s haibun of his 1689 journey to the northern end of Honshū, considered the definitive example of the genre. Also translated as Back Roads to Far Towns, The Narrow Road to the Deep North. Buson painted a screen of the entire text with illustrations, one of the masterpieces of his career, in 1779.

One Hundred Poems from One Hundred Poets: Hyakunin isshu 

One Hundred Stories: Hyaku monogatari 

Onitsura, Uejima or Kamijima Onitsura: (1660-1738): a slightly younger contemporary of Bashō, and an early apologist for the power of haiku. His poetry exhibits his strong sense of sincerity and spirituality, and he entered the priesthood toward the end of his life.

Ono no Komachi: 834-880. Considered one of the ‘six poetic geniuses’ of Japan, also the mythic archetype of the beautiful woman (it is in this capacity, rather than through her poetry, that she usually appears in Buson’s work). Legend depicts her in old age as a hag and a beggar, as in the noh dramas “Sekidera Komachi” and “Sotoba Komachi”. Rexroth says “this may be true, but it is improbable and is most likely derived from her poems, many of which deal with the transitoriness of life and beauty.” Her father may have been Yoshisada, Lord of Dewa (Rexroth and Atsumi 1977, 141). Lineberger gives her an an example of the ‘centrifugal figure’–someone who appears in many different versions and forms throughout history (2003, 33).

“Peach Blossom Fountain”:“T’ao hua yüan chi” 

Pi-yen lu: Hekiganroku

The Pillow Book: Makura no sōshi

The Pine Forest of Kuzu: Kuzu no matsubara

Po Chü-i: 772-846, T’ang era poet, heavily influenced by Zen. His poems appeared in the Wakan roeishū, and his “Ch’ang hen ko” or “Song of Unending Sorrow” (also translated as “The Song of Everlasting Sorrow,” “The Everlasting Wrong”) is a source for Buson’s references to Yuan Kuei-fei. David Hinton provides a description of his work in the introduction to his book of translations, The Selected Poems of Po Chü-i.

Poems in Three Hands: Santaishi.

Ransetsu: Hattori Ransetsu, 1654-1707. Like Kikaku, a close disciple of Bashō and teacher of Sōa. Blyth describes his character as “soft and gentle,” and his haiku as beautiful but nerveless (Blyth 1984, 1:140).

Ranzan, Wada Ranzan, pen name: Chikugo, d. 1773. A member of the Yahantei group; contributed with Buson and Kitō to the kasen “Thinner and Thinner,” appearing in the anthology Sono yukikage, Gleam of the Snow, in 1772. He also helped to write, during the course of a single evening visit by Buson, Kitō, and Chora, the four kasen that appeared in the anthology Kono hotori, Somewhere Nearby in 1773.

Record of Travels in the East: Tōyūki

Records of the Grand Historian: Shih chi

The Records of a Weather-exposed Skeleton: Nozarashi kikō 

Renju shikaku, or Linked Jewelry Beads of Poetry Forms: a collection of Chinese poetry read widely Edo Japan. Buson had a copy in his library, and used various lines from it in his paintings.

Ruisenshū, Accompanying Boat Collection, 1676 haikai handbook edited by Takase Baisei. The book tells poets what terms are traditionally associated with each other.


Sagami: Heian era poetess with work in the Goshūishū and Hyakunin Isshū. Her poems are often about love.

Saigyō: 1118-1190, a master of the waka, and author of Poems of a Mountain Home; he provided a model for the kind of wandering poet-priest that Bashō later became and Buson aspired to. His work appears in the Shinkokinshū. See Burton Watson’s translation of Poems of a Mountain Home for an introduction to his work.

Saikaku, Ihara Saikaku: 1643-1693. As a haiku poet, he is more famous for his prolific output than his quality, being associated with such mythic feats as his solo composition of 23,500 verses in a single day. In prose, some argue that he, rather than Murasaki, began the Japanese novel. His works, satirical and often mildly scandalous, included such long narratives and collections of short stories as The Life of an Amorous Man, The Life of an Amorous Woman, Five Women Who Loved Love, and Comrade Loves of the Samurai. His Nippon eitai-gura, Japanese Family Storehouse, tells stories of merchants pursuing profit; his Buke giri monogatari centers around samurai pursuing honor.

Sakanoe Korenori: a poet of the early Heian period, exact dates unknown. We do know that in 908 he took the post of Yamato’s provisional junior secretary, and that he was awarded the position of deputy governor of Kaga in 924. He is one of the thirty-six immortal poets, and his poems are in the Kokinshū, Shinkokinshū, and Hyakunin isshū.

“Sakuragawa,” “Cherry Blossom River,” is a noh play attributed to Zeami, named for the river of its setting. In it a woman, driven mad because her child is missing, drags the river with a net to keep the fallen cherry petals from being lost.

Santaishi, in Chinese San t’i shi, Poems in Three Hands or Three Styles of T’ang Poetry: a 12th-13th century collection of Japanese translations of T’ang Dynasty poems, popular in Edo Japan.

Sanuki no Suke (?1141-?1217): A leading poet of her day, served in court of Retired Emperor Nijō; she was the author of Sanuki no Suke nikki, The Diary of Sanuki, 1108.

Sarashina Kikō: A Visit to Sarashina Village. Another travel haibun by Basho, based on a trip taken in 1687-8.

Saru mino, The Monkey’s Raincoat: The poets Kyorai and Bonchō compiled this anthology of haiku and renga of the Bashō school, with Bashō’s help and advice, and published it in 1691.

Sayumaru Daifu (also Dayu, Taifu) was a ninth century Shinto priest and poet, one of the thirty six immortal poets, with work in the Hyakunin isshu.

Sei-ashō: Notes of a Frog in a Well. A treatise on poetry written in the early 1360’s by poet Tonna (1289-1372).

Sei Shōnagon: author of Makura sōshi 

“Sekidera Komachi,” “Komachi at the Gateway Temple”: a noh drama by Zeami in which the elderly Ono no Komachi is invited by priests to dance.

Selected Poems from the Land of the Rising Sun: Fuboku wakashō 

Shih chi, Records of the Grand Historian: Between 109 and 33 BCE, the Chinese court historian Szuma Chien produced this encyclopedic history of China from its mythical beginnings with the Yellow Emperor up to his own time.

Shinshi: poetry name of Kikaku

Shi shuo hsin yu (A New Account of the Tales of the World): A collection of accounts, dialogues, and commentary written or gathered by Liu I-ch'ing (403-444), on the examples of famous people of China from about 150 to 420.

Shinhanatsumi, New Flower Picking, A New Florilogem: In 1777, Buson set out to imitate Kikaku’s Hanatsumi, but health concerns forced him to modify his original taxing plan of writing ten haiku a day for a hundred days. The manuscript eventually became a looser gathering of haiku and haibun, especially with ghost stories about magical animals. It did not appear in publication until 1792.

Shinkokinshū or Shinkokin wakashū: The eighth of the imperial anthologies and one of the finest, containing 2,000 waka and compiled under the Emperor Gotoba by Fujiwara Sadaie, with the help of Fujiwara Ietaka and the Monk Jakuren, among others. Saigyō is its most heavily represented poet. Watson says that, compared to the Kokinshū, the poems of the Shinkokinshū are “marked by a bleak and somber air quite uncharacteristic of earlier periods, a tendency to favor imagery suggestive of drabness, loneliness, and melancholy, qualities summed up in the Japanese term sabi (Saigyō 1991, 8)

Shōha, Kuroyanagi Shoha, pen name: Shundei, 1727-1771. First a merchant, retired in middle age to become a haiku poet and member of the Sanka group from its early days, and a close friend of Buson’s. He was a student of Chinese literature, and his tastes were for the hermit’s life of rustic retirement. Buson gave a statement of his poetics in the form of a conversation between himself and Shōha in his preface to the Collected Verses of Shundei in 1778.

Shokugoshūishū, or Later Collection of Gleanings Continued: the sixteenth imperial poetry anthology, compiled by Fujiwara Tamefuji and Fujiwara Tamesada and finished in 1325.

Shokyu, Arii Shokyu, 1714-1781: A haiku poet of Kyoto, she was married to the haiku poet Arii Fufū, but her reputation eclipsed his based on the travel diaries she kept after his death.

Shotetsu: 1381-1459, a priest, poet and theorist, a transitional figure between the court-centered literary world of the Heian period and the later rise of poets from the middle class. He earned the enmity of the shogun, and so his poetry was kept out of the imperial anthologies, but he was extremely prolific. His private waka collection is the Sōkonshū.

Shriveled Chestnuts: Minashiguri

Shukuzan Hisamitsu: 17th century haiku poet, a friend of Bashō.

“Shumpū batei no kyoku,” “Kema Bank in the Spring Breeze”: a naga uta, or long poem by Buson, in eighteen stanzas and a preface, using great freedom in its formal composition. Some of the verses are loose haiku, some in imitation of Chinese verse. The poem is a first person account of a young woman returning home for a holiday. Buson called it a “journey scene from an amaturish play.” It was included, along with “The Yodo River”, in his Midnight Melodies, published in 1777 (Ueda 1998, 100-101).

Shundei kushū, The Collected Verses of Shundei: a posthumous collection of haiku by Shōha , edited by Kuroyanagi Korekoma, appearing in 1777. Buson wrote the preface, which provides us with the most comprehensive statement we have of his poetics.

Sōa, Hayano Sōa, Hajin: 1676-1742. As a young man Buson studied haiku under him in Edo, living in his house and performing errands until Sōa’s death seven years later. Buson acknowledged a lifelong debt to him, and as his most talented pupil, inherited his position in the world of haiku poets. Buson included him, along with such older luminaries as Sōkan, in his “Group portrait of haikai sages,” thus placing him in the lineage of haiku masters (Crowley 2007, 41).

Sodō, Yamaguchi Sodō: 1643-1716. Another disciple of Bashō, known for his mastery of Chinese literature (Blyth 1984, 1:188).

Soga monogatari, The Tale of the Soga: a gunki monogatari, or tale of warriors, based on mythical events in the twelfth century, began as a ballad drama, then a written tale, in the fifteenth century. The episodes of the story were embellished and expanded, resulting in a puppet play by Chikamatsu Manzaemon and a very popular kabuki play in the late 17th century. The complicated vengeance narrative became a staple source for various literary works.

    The basic story (with many asides on Confucian ethics) is this: Kudō Suketsune was angry with his cousin Kōzu Surō Sukemichi over an inheritance dispute, and had him killed when Sukemichi’s sons Jūro and Gorō were small boys. Their mother remarried a man named Soga, who adopted the older son and sent the younger to be a priest in a monastery. All along, however, the brothers plotted to revenge their father. Eighteen years later, they killed their uncle at a hunting party to which the uncle had hubristically invited them. In the ensuing clash, Jūro was killed and Gorō captured. The shogun reluctantly followed Gorō’s wishes and had him killed as well.

Sōgi, Iiyo Sōgi: 1421-1502. A renga poet, a monk versed in painting, calligraphy, and tea ceremony, and known for his great elegance and his many travels. He contributed in important ways to the formation of haiku from renga (Blyth 1984, 1:46).

Sōkan, Yamazaki Sōkan: 1458-1546. An early haiku master, and an influence in establishing the more comic senryu form. He was the son of the shogun Yorimasa (builder of the Silver Pavilion), and he adopted the austere life of a monk after the death of his master, the shogun Yoshihisa. Bashō thought of him as a model (Blyth 1984, 1:54). Buson included him in his early painting, “Group portrait of haikai sages” (Crowley 2007, 41).

Songs of the South: Ch’u tz’u

Sono yukikage: Gleam of the Snow, the first substantial collection by Buson and his school, appearing in 1772 to commemorate the death of the poet Kikei. It gathered work not only by Buson and his students, but also by Sōa and his followers. Kitō did the editing; Miyake Shōzan wrote the postscript; Buson provided the preface. “Buson also drew two illustrations for the book: one showed Bashō teaching Kikaku and Ranstetsu and the other Sōa teaching Kikei. Obviously these were intended to depict the roots of the haikai style in which the Yahantei poets wrote” (Ueda 1998, 71).

Sōoku, Mochizuku Sōoku (d. April 29th, 1766–Ueda 1998, 42-43). The head of Sōa’s poetry circle after his death, and the uncle of Kitō, who studied with Buson before he became the head himself.

Sotōba: the Japanese name for the Chinese poet Su Shih.

“Sotoba Komachi,” Komachi at the Grave-post”: a noh drama by Kan’ami in which an old woman sits on a stupa, is reproached by a priest, and then reveals herself to be the ghost of Ono no Komachi.

Spring Days: Haru no hi

Su Shih, or Su Tung-p’o, or in Japanese Sotōba. 1037-1101, Song Dynasty poet, calligrapher, painter, statesman, etc. When Buson alludes to him, it is usually to his two famous prose poems, the first and second “Red Cliff Odes,” meditations on boat trips down the Yangtze. However, Su Shih’s love of the grotesque, as exemplified in Su Shih’s Forest of Anecdotes, would have appealed to Buson also (Ueda 1998, 75).

Taigi: Tan Taigi, 1709-1771. A haiku poet, like Buson a follower of the urban branch of the Bashō school. Although he became a priest and studied Zen, he ended up living in Kyōto in the pleasure quarters of Shimabara, and his poetry is full of references to the “floating world.” He and Buson were close friends.

Taiheiki: “annals of Japanese history from 1318 to 1368, written by Kojima, a priest of Hieizan, who died in 1374” (Blyth 1992, 1:122). 

The Tale of Genji: Genji monogatari

Tale of Heiji: Heiji monogatari

The Tale of the Heike: Heike monogatari 

Tales of Ise: Ise monogatari

Tale of the Soga: Soga monogatari

Tales of Rain and Moonlight: Ugetsu monogatari

Tales of Spring Rain: Harusame monogatari

Tales of Times Now Past: Konjaku monogatari

Tales of Yamato: Yamato monogatari

T’ao Ch’ien: also T’ao Yüan-ming, Chinese poet, 365-427. He was known as the “Poet of the Fields,” and was a source of great fascination for the T’ang and Song Dynasty poets. Buson seems to have read him with care, and even took his name from a line in T’ao Ch’ien’s “Homecoming Ode.” He also was fond of T’ao Chien’s “Peach Blossom Fountain” (see below). For an introduction to his poetry, see Hinton’s translations in his Selected Poems of Tao Ch’ien

“T’ao hua yüan chi,” “Peach Blossom Fountain”: an extremely influential prose fragment by T’ao Ch’ien (see above), telling the story of a fisherman who finds a forest of blossoming peach trees leading to a river tunnel. On the other side is a secluded utopia full of people living in complete ease and happiness. Robert Payne says of it: “Once again the image of ‘the return,’ which dominates some of the most superb Han poems and which is visible throughout the Tao te ching, achieves perfect expression” (1960, 132). Buson alludes to the piece frequently.

The Ten Foot Square Hut: Hōjōki

Ten Pleasures and Ten Conveniences of Rural Living: Jūben jūgi zu.

Tōshi-sen, in Chinese T’ang shi hsüan, Selected T’ang Dynasty Poems: gathered by poet Li Yü-lin in the Ming Dynasty, popular in Edo Japan as a sort of “Chinese Poems Every Educated Person Should Know.” Hirō Saga listed it as part of Buson’s reading.

Tōyūki, or Record of Travels in the East: travel diary by the court physician Tachibana Nankei (1754-1806), a companion book to his Saiyūki, or Record of Travels to the West. They were illustrated by Buson’s friend Maruyama Ōkyo.

Tsukushi michi no ki, Diary of the Road to Tsukushi: a 1480 travel journal by Sōgi, and an early model for the kind of accounts Bashō produced in his own travel diaries.

Tsurezure-gusa, Essays in Idleness: written in about 1330 by the priest Kenkō, a collection of short casual prose pieces meditating on anecdotes, experiences, Buddhist precepts, etc.

Tu Fu: also Du Fu, 712–770. One of the three great T’ang Dyansty poets, along with Li Po and Wang Wei. Once again, David Hinton’s Selected Poems of Tu Fu provides a helpful introduction to his work.

Ueda Akinari: 1734-1809, poet and writer of stories, especially the two collections Ugetsu monogatari  and Harusame monogatari . He was a crotchety, cantankerous man, but he and Buson seem to have gotten along well, perhaps because of their shared love of ghost stories. He wrote the afterward to Zoku ake-garasu, Sequel to Dawn Crow, one of the major anthologies of Buson’s school (Crowley 2007, 112).

Ugetsu monogatari: Tales of Rain and Moonlight, a collection of ghostly tales, written by Buson’s friend Ueda Akinari (see above) and published in 1776.

Ujishūi monogatari, Gleanings from Uji, a thirteenth century collection of anecdotes.

Unribō, Watanabe Unribō, the monk Seihan: 1693-1761; Buson considered him a close friend, and wrote several haiku about their visits. He admired Unribō’s ability to travel at will.

Uzuragoromo (literally, Quail Robe, or as Rogers translates it, Rags and Tatters). A book of haibun written in 1727-29 by Yokoi Yayū.

A Visit to Sarashina Village: Sarashina kikō

Wakanrōeishū, Collection of Japanese and Chinese Poems for Singing: an anthology, completed in 1031, of excerpts from Chinese and Japanese classical poetry, edited by Fujiwara Kintō (966-1041).

Wakan sansai zue, or Japanese-Chinese Illustrated Collection of the Three Components of the Universe: Japan’s first encyclopedia, 105 volumes, edited by Terajima Ryoan and published in 1712.

Wang Wei: 701-761, another of the three great T’ang poets, along with Tu Fu and Li Po (and a painter also). His poems are often descriptions of landscapes empty or nearly of people, marked by a quiet and contemplative mood. Buson referred to him in one of his deathbed haiku. See David Hinton’s Selected Poems of Wang Wei.

Wen-hsüan: Monzen

The Words and Phrases of the Lotus Sutra: Hokke mongu

“Yahan-ō shūenki,” “The Death of Old Man Midnight”: Kitō’s account of Buson’s passing away after an illness of some weeks. The title deliberately echoes Takarai Kikaku’s “Bashō ō shūen ki,” “The Death of Old Man Bashō.”

Yahanraku: Midnight Melodies. Buson published this collection of work by himself and his students in 1777 in place of a New Year’s album. (The name makes reference to Buson’s own nickname, “Old Man Midnight,” the name he took to acknowledge his master Sōa, whose house was the Midnight Pavilion.) The long poems “Kema Riverbank in the Spring Breeze” and “The Yodo River” appeared in it.

Yamato monogatari, Tales of Yamato: a collection, from the tenth century, of uta-monogatari, ‘poem tales.’ Each entry includes, perhaps briefly or perhaps at length, the narrative of the context in which the waka was composed. Some of the tales are historical or traditional and some invented.

“The Yodo River”: “Dengaka”

“Yōchi Soga,” “The Night Attack of the Soga Brothers”: popular noh play by Miyamasu. The Soga brothers send their retainers, Oniō and Danzaburō, to their mother with a farewell message while they fulfill their vendetta against their father’s killer. After the successful attack, one brother is killed and the other commits ritual suicide. See also Soga monogatari.

Yokoi Yayu: 1702-1783, a writer of haibun such as Uzuragoromo, and a contemporary of Buson’s (they died in the same year). His work, compared to Buson’s, is much lighter and more dependent on puns and word play, probably the kind of frivolity that Buson’s Bashō revival movement positioned itself against, but there are moments in Buson’s poetry where they seem more similar than different.

Yoshitsune, Fujiwara or Minamoto Yoshitsune. 12th century. Fujiwara Sadaie and his father Toshinari were both his teachers; has poems in Shinkokinshu. He is important in Japan’s political as well as cultural history. When his brother Yoritomo became shogun, he became second in command, or hogan. In Tales of the Heike and noh plays such as “Benkei on the Boat” and “Ataka” (“Benkei at the Barrirer”), Yoshitsune is a model of bravery, loyalty, and virtue; nevertheless, his brother was so jealous and suspicious that he eventually forced Yoshitsune to commit suicide. The term hogan biiki, ‘sympathy for the hogan,’ or in vulgar parlance, ‘rooting for the underdog,’ derives from this narrative. His exploits are the subject of literature and legend, especially his friendship with the monstrous soldier monk Benkei.

Zeami Motokiyo: 1363-1443, actor, theoretician and playwright, son of Kan’ami. Together with his father, they established noh as the first serious dramatic art form in Japan. He wrote “Sekidera Komachi” and “Hagoromo” (“The Feather Robe”), among others.

Zenrin kushū: Book of the Zen Grove, a collection of agyo, or sentences for Zen meditation, gathered from hundreds of sources, existing in several versions. When quoted from Hori, refers the version edited by Ijūshi and published in 1688.

Zoku ake garasu, Crows at Dawn: A Sequel: an anthology of Buson’s school, edited by Kitō in 1776.

© 2014 Amy England, rights reserved